Scientists from Cambridge, Brazil and Italy have together discovered a way that bacteria in the gut can control genes in our cells. Their work shows that chemical messages from bacteria can alter chemical markers throughout the human genome. The signal chemicals are made when bacteria digest fruits and vegetables. By communicating in this way, the bacteria may help to fight infections and to prevent cancer.
Half of women working in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) jobs report having experienced gender discrimination at work, according to a new Pew Research Center survey examining people's experiences in the workplace and perceptions of fair treatment for women -- as well as racial and ethnic minorities -- in STEM occupations.
Duke engineers have grown the first functioning human muscle from non-muscle cells -- skin cells reverted to their primordial stem cell state. The ability to start from cellular scratch using non-muscle tissue will allow scientists to grow far more muscle cells, provide an easier path to genome editing and cellular therapies, and develop individually tailored models of rare muscle diseases for drug discovery and basic biology studies.
Researchers at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine have identified for the first time that the estrogen receptor-binding protein MED1 is a critical mediator of HER2-driven breast cancer, identifying it as a potential therapeutic target.
Scientists at the Keck School of Medicine of USC use enzymes responsible for marine animal bioluminescence to help researchers test whether cancer immunotherapies work.
While refining ways to grow arterial endothelial cells in the lab, a regenerative biology team at the Morgridge Institute for Research unexpectedly unearthed a powerful new model for studying a hallmark of vascular disease.
University of Alberta researchers have discovered a mechanism that may make cancer cells more susceptible to treatment. The research team found that the protein RYBP prevents DNA repair in cancer cells, including breast cancer.
Implanted devices send targeted electrical stimulation to the nervous system to interfere with abnormal brain activity, and it is commonly assumed that neurons are the only important brain cells that need to be stimulated by these devices. However, research published in Nature Biomedical Engineering reveals that it may also be important to target the supportive glial cells surrounding the neurons.
A cellular traffic jam appears to affect neurons in most forms of ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), Emory/Mayo researchers have shown. The findings suggest that a drug strategy aimed at easing the traffic jam may be generalizable to sporadic and at least some familial types of ALS and FTD (frontotemporal dementia).
Researchers at Instituto de Medicina Molecular (iMM) João Lobo Antunes have found that manipulating a single RNA molecule is enough to revert celular ageing.
Researchers at Indiana University School of Medicine have successfully developed a method to grow hairy skin from mouse pluripotent stem cells -- a discovery that could lead to new approaches to model disease and new therapies for the treatment of skin disorders and cancers.
The latest publication by Insilico Medicine and BioTime in Oncotarget demonstrated the first application of deep neural networks (DNNs) to the gene expression data collected during many stages of differentiation starting from several embryonic stem cell lines. Repression of COX7A1 in embryonic and cancer cells was identified as embryonic-fetal transition markers by DNN.
A team of researchers in Italy and Austria has determined that a drug approved to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) may be less effective in a particular subset of patients. The study, which will be published Jan. 4 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, reveals that ibrutinib has a diminished capacity to delocalize and kill tumor cells expressing an adhesive protein called CD49d, but combining ibrutinib treatment with drugs that block CD49d activation could prevent the tumor cells from sheltering in lymphoid organs.
A study in Cell Stem Cell demonstrates that a gene therapy approach can lead to the long-term survival of functional beta cells as well as normal blood glucose levels for an extended period of time in mice with type 1 diabetes. The researchers used an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector to deliver to the mouse pancreas two proteins, Pdx1 and MafA, which reprogrammed plentiful alpha cells into functional, insulin-producing beta cells.
Clinical trial findings show that a regimen involving transplantation of a person's own blood-forming stem cells can improve survival for people with severe scleroderma, a life-threatening autoimmune disease. Myeloablative autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) includes chemotherapy and radiation to destroy the bone marrow then transplanting the person's own blood-forming stem cells to reconstitute the marrow and immune system. The NIH-funded study found myeloablative HSCT to be superior to treatment with the immune-suppressing drug cyclophosphamide.
Scleroderma with internal organ involvement is a debilitating and lethal autoimmune disorder with few effective treatments. But a study led by Duke Health researchers has found new cause for optimism using an aggressive stem cell transplant regimen.
By tagging bone marrow cells of mice with a genetic label, or barcode, researchers were able to track and describe the family tree of individual blood cells as they form in their natural environment.
Scientists have shown how alcohol damages DNA in stem cells, helping to explain why drinking increases your risk of cancer, according to research part-funded by Cancer Research UK and published in Nature today.
For the more than 1 million Americans who live with type 1 diabetes, daily insulin injections are literally a matter of life and death. And while there is no cure, a Cornell University-led research team has developed a device that could revolutionize management of the disease.
Indiana University School of Medicine researchers have cultured the first lab-grown skin tissue complete with hair follicles. This skin model, developed using stem cells from mice, more closely resembles natural hair than existing models and may prove useful for testing drugs, understanding hair growth, and reducing the practice of animal testing. The work appears January 2 in the journal Cell Reports.