An international team led by researchers at Berkeley Lab used advanced techniques in electron microscopy to show how the ratio of materials that make up a lithium-ion battery electrode affects its structure at the atomic level, and how the surface is very different from the rest of the material.
Stem cells are considered to be immortal in culture and, therefore, of great interest for aging research. This immortality is regulated by increased proteostasis, which controls the quality of proteins. A team of researchers led by David Vilchez of the Cluster of Excellence CECAD at the University of Cologne found a link between increased proteostasis and immortality of human embryonic stem cells. Their results are published in the online research journal Scientific Reports.
Researchers from St. Jude Children's Research Hospital have discovered that inhibiting an enzyme called cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) protects mice and rats from noise- or drug-induced hearing loss. The study, which will be published March 7 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, suggests that CDK2 inhibitors prevent the death of inner ear cells, which has the potential to save the hearing of millions of people around the world.
A Northeastern University professor has developed a new personalized method to discover genes implicated in complex diseases. One of the ultimate goals of the research is to create personalized therapeutic drugs to reverse heart disease.
Existing treatments for eczema, which affects about 17 percent of children in developed countries, are expensive or have side effects. A study in Science Immunology suggests a different approach to eczema, one that stimulates a natural brake on the allergic attack, made by T regulatory cells in the skin.
Scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, have discovered that the same kind of fat cells that help newborn babies regulate their body temperature could be a target for weight-loss drugs in adults.
To unearth new functional regions in the human genome with potential roles in shaping clinically important traits, researchers searched for how elephants, hibernating bats, orcas, dolphins, naked mole rats, and ground squirrels changed critical parts of the human genome that are shared with most other mammals. These regions are highly conserved, but to evolve their highly distinctive traits, these seven species had to change how these conserved DNA elements work.
It is the pancreatic islets that have the overall responsibility for maintaining normal blood glucose levels in our bodies, according to a new study by researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden and the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, USA. The findings, published in the scientific journal Cell Metabolism, have important implications for certain diabetes treatments.
Researchers have pinpointed a new therapeutic target for macular degeneration, an eye disease that affects over 10 million Americans and is the leading cause of blindness in adults over 60. The findings show that tree-shaped retinal cells called Müller glia play a key role in preventing degenerative vision loss in rats.
For nearly two decades, scientists have noted dramatic changes in arctic tundra habitat. UMN researchers set out to discover what could be behind the changes.
Genetically modified stem and progenitor cells overexpressing NTFs have recently attracted special attention of researchers and are most promising for the purposes of regenerative medicine. Therefore, we have studied the effect of genetically modified human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells on the expression of stem cell molecular determinants in spinal cord injuries.
Waseda University researchers recently elucidated the regenerative processes by neural stem cells using a stab injury model in the optic tectum, a less studied area of the brain, of adult zebrafish. This study has brought them a step closer to shedding light on how an injured, human central nervous system (CNS) could be restored.
Even with a lack of peer-reviewed evidence, the number of centers advertising stem cell therapies for osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee are increasing in the United States. These centers claim an 80 percent success rate, according to research presented this week at the 2018 Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS).
Researchers in France have discovered that, though a tattoo may be forever, the skin cells that carry the tattoo pigment are not. Instead, the researchers say, the cells can pass on the pigment to new cells when they die. The study, which will be published March 6 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, suggests ways to improve the ability of laser surgery to remove unwanted tattoos.
A prospective new method of treating patients with multiple sclerosis has been proposed by researchers of the Mainz University Medical Center working in cooperation with researchers of the University of Montreal. In model trials and experiments employing human endothelial cells, they discovered that the EGFL7 protein hinders the migration of immune cells into the central nervous system by stabilizing the blood-brain barrier.
Research results point to a therapeutic value for the protein (Ahr) because controlling it might repress the pluripotency of the cancer stem cell and reduce the malignity of the tumour. Indeed, different naturally-occurring molecules have been identified that modulate the activity of this protein in specific ways. In addition, the dioxin receptor might also facilitate the development of tools for the prognosis and evolution of the types of cancer in the study, hepatocellular carcinoma and melanoma.
Researchers report a new gene editing method that can modify a single DNA base in the human genome with absolute precision.
Researchers found alterations of the gene thousand and one amino-acid kinase 2, known as TAOK2, plays a direct role in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism. This is the first comprehensive study that supports previous research suggesting the involvement of this gene.
Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have developed a technique that allowed them to determine at diagnosis whether children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia would relapse following treatment.
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can infinitely self-renew and develop into all major cell types in the body, making them important for organ repair and replacement. But culturing them in large quantities can be expensive. Now, scientists at Japan's Kyoto University, with colleagues in India and Iran, have developed a more cost-effective culture by using a new combination of chemical compounds.