CU Cancer Center study presented at AACR18 shows that TIM3 and/or increased regulatory T cells (Tregs) within a tumor may help cancers inactivate immune system killer T cells that would otherwise identify and attack the cancer.
'What we find is that dabrafenib, even at high doses, does not fully turn off the MAPK pathway, thereby enabling eventual escape from drug,' says Sabrina Spencer, Ph.D.
When prostate cancer metastasizes to bone, it can become especially dangerous. A CU study at AACR18 hints at why: cells involved in these bone metastases may release signals that drive the progression of the disease.
Salk scientists improve the growth of three-dimensional brain models to better understand autism, dementia, schizophrenia.
The nematode C. elegans is truly an organizational talent: The tiny animals live for only two to three weeks, with sexual maturity lasting only four days. They still manage to generate over 300 offspring during this period. For this ambitious development program to function optimally, a large number of processes must be synchronized within their cells. Geneticists at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) have deciphered a central signalling pathway that encodes and controls these processes.
Researchers at OHSU in Portland, Ore., have identified a new molecule within the brain's white matter that blocks the organ's ability to repair itself following injury. By preventing the production of this molecule, it is possible to create an effective pathway that allows the brain to continue its regenerative process. This may help to limit long-term physical and mental disability associated with devastating neurological conditions.
Stable joint cartilage can be produced from adult stem cells originating from bone marrow. This is made possible by inducing specific molecular processes occurring during embryonic cartilage formation, as researchers from the University and University Hospital of Basel report in the scientific journal PNAS.
Just like people, some T cells have excellent memories. These subtypes known as memory T cells may explain why some immunotherapies are more effective than others and potentially lead to researchers designing more effective studies using combination checkpoint blockade treatments, according to experts at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.
Scientists at the University of Waterloo have developed a new tool to protect women from HIV infection.
UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers and their collaborators are reporting preclinical findings for a potential two-treatment strategy to block multiple mechanisms of cancer cell metabolism in pancreatic cancer at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting in Chicago. The findings will be presented from 8 a.m. to noon on Wednesday.
Human stem cells have shown potential in medicine as they can transform into various specialized cell types such as bone and cartilage cells. The current approach to obtain such specialized cells is to subject stem cells to specialized instructive protein molecules known as growth factors. However, use of growth factors in the human body can generate harmful effects including unwanted tissue growth, such as a tumor.
The Center for Regenerative Medicine (CReM) at Boston University and Boston Medical Center has engineered two new categories of lung epithelial cells in vitro using pluripotent stem cells.
Working in mice, University of Iowa researchers have identified a new population of lung stem cells that appear to be important for regenerating the airway following severe injury. The cells, known as glandular myoepithelial cells (MECs), can self-renew and differentiate into seven distinct cell types in the airway. Overexpression of the transcription factor Lef-1 in MECs is sufficient to activate the cells' regenerative response even in the absence of airway injury.
UCLA researchers have found that melanomas can be divided into four distinct subtypes according to their stages of differentiation. Cell subtypes that de-differentiated -- meaning that they reverted back to a less-mature cell -- showed sensitivity to a type of self-inflicted cell death called ferroptosis.
Kyoto University researchers report on a novel molecular mechanism that explains how HTLV-1 survives in human cells. By allowing a small number of infected cells to express the gene Tax, they survive and spread.
Developing a method to identify individual cell messengers, called extracellular vesicles, means they can now be used to detect cancer and other disease and be engineered for regenerative medicine.
Researchers have uncovered a mechanism by which mitochondria, essential organelles within cells that create energy, cope with an overload of imported proteins.
Researchers have long sought to identify the cells in the gut that are susceptible to infection by norovirus, the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide -- and now one team has pinpointed the type of cell that falls victim.
Researchers from the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology (NIGP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and their colleagues from Germany and the UK reported scale architectures from Jurassic Lepidoptera from the UK, Germany, Kazakhstan and China and Tarachoptera (a stem group of Amphiesmenoptera) from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber.
In a study published online today in Science Translational Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine researchers report that an experimental peptide (small protein) drug shows promise against the often-lethal cancer acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and describe how the drug works at the molecular level. The findings have led to a Phase I/II clinical trial for patients with advanced AML and advanced myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), now underway at Montefiore Health System.
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