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University of Alabama at Birmingham biomedical engineers report a significant advance in efforts to repair a damaged heart after a heart attack, using grafted heart-muscle cells to create a repair patch. The key was overexpressing a gene that activates the cell-cycle of the grafted muscle cells, so they grow and divide more than control grafted cells.
Macrophages, a type of white blood cell involved in inflammation, readily take up a newly approved medication for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and promote its sustained delivery to regenerating muscle fibers long after the drug has disappeared from circulation, an experimental model study finds.
A new study in Cell Reports by Matthew Wanat, assistant professor of biology at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), sheds light on how dopamine cells in the brain signal the passage of time.
Stereotypes suggest that women love to talk, with some studies even finding that women say three times as much as men. But, new research from a team from the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, shows there is an exception to this rule: professional STEM events, which could be indicative of the wider problem of gender inequality in the field.
Killing cancer cells indirectly by powering up fat cells in the bone marrow could help acute myeloid leukemia patients, says a study from McMaster University published in Nature Cell Biology. Researchers with the McMaster Stem Cell and Cancer Research Institute found that boosting adipocytes, or fat cells, located in the bone morrow suppressed cancerous leukemia cells but -- in a surprise to the research team -- also induced the regeneration of healthy blood cells.
A team led by LMU's Veit Hornung has elucidated the mechanism by which human cells induce inflammation upon detection of cytoplasmic DNA. Notably, the signal network involved differs from that used in the same context in mice.
Researchers have reported a method for successfully removing the cellular material from whole human livers while retaining the organ's three-dimensional structure and extracellular matrix (ECM) components.
A nine-year joint research project conducted by VIB, KU Leuven and VUB has led to a crucial breakthrough in cancer research. Scientists have clarified how the Warburg effect, a phenomenon in which cancer cells rapidly break down sugars, stimulates tumor growth. This discovery provides evidence for a positive correlation between sugar and cancer, which may have far-reaching impacts on tailor-made diets for cancer patients. The research has been published in the leading academic journal Nature Communications.
The immune system checks the health of cells of the body by examining a kind of molecular passport. Sometimes cells present the wrong passport, which can lead to autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammations or cancer. Scientists of the Goethe University Frankfurt explain the process how this happens in the new issue of the journal Science.
A new study suggests that the ability of a stem cell to differentiate into cardiac muscle (and by extension other cell types) depends on what portions of the genome are available for activation, which is controlled by the location of DNA in a cell's nucleus.
A USC research team has identified how cancer stem cells survive. This finding may one day lead to new therapies for liver cancer. James Ou and his colleagues found that mitophagy, the removal of damaged mitochondria, is a potential therapeutic target. Mitophagy can cause tumors to proliferate. That is because a powerful tumor suppressor called p53 attaches itself to mitochondria. Removing mitochondria inadvertently removes the body's natural ability to keep tumors at bay.
For decades, immortal cells such as the famous HeLa cells have been contaminating other cell cultures in the lab. As a result, scientific studies about certain cells are actually discussing other cells. Willem Halffman and Serge Horbach, researchers at Radboud University, found more than 30,000 publications on the wrong cells. Scientific journal PLOS ONE will publish the results on Oct. 12.
Led by Jean-Christophe Marine (VIB-KU Leuven), a team of researchers has tracked down the cellular origin of cutaneous melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer. The team was surprised to observe that these very aggressive tumors arise from mature, pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. As melanoma develops, these cells are eventually reprogrammed, lose their differentiated features and become invasive, migratory cancer cells. This knowledge is vital to understand how these melanoma lesions are formed, facilitate their early detection and develop preventive treatment avenues.
Monash University researchers have revealed the role played by an enzyme that is pivotal to the process of clearing infection in the body. Moreover, they suggest that the enzyme may be a potential target for drug development to block the types of inappropriate or excessive cell behaviour that occur in cancer and autoimmunity.
Early stages of antibacterial damage caused by metallic nanoparticles (NPs) were studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and combined Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy with High Angle Annular Dark Field (STEM-HAADF), aiming to contribute to the elucidation of the primary antibacterial mechanism of metallic NPs.
Researchers at Columbia University Medical Center have identified cells in the upper digestive tract that can give rise to Barrett's esophagus, a precursor to esophageal cancer.
Researchers at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and their collaborators have created expanded potential stem cells (EPSCs) in mice, for the first time, that have a greater potential for development than current stem cell lines. These stem cells have the features of the very first cells in the developing embryo, and can develop into any type of cell.
The brain is composed of distinct regions that differ in their functional roles and cellular architecture. It remains largely unknown to what extent a single type in different brain regions displays similarity in gene expression, connectivity, and developmental origins. Researchers at the Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience discovered regional differences among chandelier cells, a unique class of inhibitory neurons, and showed that location matters when it comes to brain cells' gene expression, connections, and innervation area.
Using human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), a Massachusetts General Hospital research team has bioengineered functional small intestine segments that, when implanted into rats, were capable of deliver nutrients into the bloodstream.
UCLA researchers have developed an improved technique for creating simplified human brain tissue from stem cells. Because these so-called 'mini brain organoids' mimic human brains in how they grow and develop, they're vital to studying complex neurological diseases.